European Network Against Racism udgav i oktober 2011 rapporten ‘Integration beyond migration: Kicking off the debate’.
European Network Against Racism (ENAR) advocates for a departure from the current EU and national approaches to integration and to embrace integration across the policy areas of migration, social inclusion, citizenship, intercultural dialogue, education, and employment creation. As a first step, ENAR has commissioned the Migration Policy Group to provide some ‘food for thought’ on the problems with the EU’s current approach to integration and outlining potential new concepts.
This publication presents a reflection on the integration concepts and approaches currently in use across Europe, with a view to exploring whether conceptual changes in European policy debates should be introduced that would lead to a better understanding of and more effective policies on integration. It proposes defining integration policies in terms of the engagement of citizens and residents in the promotion of the well-being of all in a diverse society, and accordingly describes and analyses examples of promising approaches and effective instruments.
European migration and integration concepts and approaches
Different types of migrants exist in the EU: intra-EU ‘migrants’; EU nationals exercising their right to free movement; and ‘third country nationals’ coming from outside the EU. The admission and settlement conditions for these two categories differ considerably. Two main policy frameworks, the Europe 2020 Strategy and the Stockholm programme for justice and home affairs, which are weakly connected both conceptually and programmatically, discuss integration issues in different ways and in relation to distinct and differently defined groups of people.
Immigrants are seen more as a vulnerable group and as victims of racial and ethnic discrimination than as active residents and citizens in European socio-economic policy co-ordination mechanisms. In the Stockholm programme and the EU’s migration policies, integration has been primarily used in reference to legally residing third country nationals, focusing on newcomers at the expense of established migrants and minorities.
Participation in creating and sharing prosperity and well-being
The ‘capability approach’ emphasises the ability of individuals to pursue and realise the goals they value and can be used to underpin approaches to address integration challenges.
Integration can then be described as the development and use of capabilities for participating on an equal footing in the production and sharing of prosperity and well-being.
Applying such an approach considers citizens with and without an immigrant background as actors, whereas depriving them of their capabilities leaves them vulnerable to exclusion, racism, sexism, poverty and powerlessness.
On the road to open and inclusive organisations
This chapter describes and analyses promising approaches and instruments used by organisations when they act as employers, buyers of services and service providers. It describes the steps to be taken to prepare, implement and review actions in order to become open and inclusive organisations.
Read more: www.enar-eu.org