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Sharing Diversity - kulturpolitiske anbefalinger til EUs medlemslande



Rapport af: ERICarts for Europa-Kommissionen

Marts 2008

Land: Europa


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Rapporten ‘Sharing Diversity: National approaches to Intercultural Dialogue in Europe’ blev en vigtig hjørnesten i Europa-Kommisionens arbejde med det interkulturelle felt, da den udkom i 2008. Den indeholder en lang række overvejelser og anbefalinger til medlemslandenes kulturpolitiske strategier for at fremme den interkulturelle dialog.


Denne rapport er – eller burde være – et 'must read' for enhver, der er ansat i en statsfinansieret kulturinstitution og som ønsker at arbejde med interkulturelle strategier og inklusion. Også selvom den er ved at være nogle år gammel.

 

Rapporten tegner et omrids af, hvad der gøres i de forskellige europæiske lande på området for kunst og interkultur. Den fremhæver især Storbritannien og Holland som europæiske forgangslande, hvor omfattende kulturpolitiske strategier for at fremme interkulturel dialog har været på plads et stykke tid. 

 

I Holland blev en radikal ny kulturpolitik vedtaget af kulturminister Rik Van Der Ploeg i 1999 med det formål at åbne landets kulturinstitutioner for indvandrere. 

 

Ifølge rapporten viser eksemplerne fra disse to lande, at myndighedernes regulering er nødvendige for at skabe de muligheder, der gør det muligt for kunstnere med interkulturel baggrund at deltage i mainstream kulturlivet. 

 

Sverige nævnes som et land, der siden det svenske kulturministerium erklærede 2006 for 'Året for kulturel mangfoldighed', er begyndt at følge Englands og Hollands eksempel.  

 

Kvoter og regulering

I Belgien, hvor godt 10 procent af befolkningen er ‘ikke-indfødte’, har de flamske myndigheder anvendt en 10-procent kvote for at sikre, at 10 procent af statens kunststøttemidler bruges på ikke-indfødt kunst og kunstnere. En lignende strategi blev anvendt af Kunstrådet i Storbritannien med en 4-procent kvote i 1980erne. 

 

I disse og andre lande har særlige kvoteforordninger i kunst- og kulturlivet ført til kontroversielle diskussioner om ytringsfrihed og kvalitetskriterier. 

 

I Finland udarbejdede Ministeriet for Uddannelse og Kultur en handlingsplan for Tilgængelighed i Kunst og Kultur 2006-2010 (på finsk), som skulle skabe konkrete tiltag for at fremme mulighederne for at sproglige og kulturelle mindretal kan deltage i det finske kulturliv. 

 

Det nævnes også, at Norges Kulturråd etablerede en enhed, der skulle udarbejde en strategi for kulturel mangfoldighed. 

 

Desuden reflekterer rapportens skribenter over, hvordan fokus på indvandrergruppers  kulturforbrug kan balanceres med hensynet til en national kulturarv.

 

Anbefalinger
Rapporten indeholder 50 kulturpolitiske anbefalinger til europæiske regeringer og nationale kulturaktører. Den er skrevet af The European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research (ERICarts Institute), som samarbejdede med 12 specialister og 37 nationale korrespondenter. Europa-Kommissionen havde givet dem bestillingen at undersøge, hvordan de enkelte EU-lande håndterer og forholder sig til begrebet 'interkulturel dialog'.

Her følger et uddrag af anbefalingerne:

 

 

 



8. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: SHARING DIVERSITY WITHIN AND BETWEEN CULTURES


A number of areas for future action have been identified in the study:

A. Recognise that intercultural dialogue depends upon the full implementation of human, civic, economic, social and cultural rights, as outlined in international and European legal instruments, into national legislative and policy frameworks. Since intercultural dialogue is not a legal category in itself, it relies on the active enforcement and monitoring of fundamental rights in practice. Specific articles of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights (2000) are of particular importance to intercultural dialogue by promoting: equality, nondiscrimination, cultural, religious and linguistic diversity, freedom of expression and movement, citizenship rights to economic and political participation. This shows that in the context of intercultural dialogue, universal human rights (as individual rights) and cultural rights (recognising specific and/or multiple cultural identities) are not incompatible and could be further developed.
 
B. Acknowledge intercultural dialogue at the heart of citizenship and integration strategies.
This would imply the recognition of equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities for everyone, while at the same time advocating respect for diversity and interculturality as expressed in the 'unity in diversity' concept of European citizenship. In this context, the expression of values based on different cultural and religious traditions, world views or lifestyles could become a subject for dialogue rather than a pretext for exclusion or assimilation.
 
C. Approach intercultural dialogue as a transversal issue which is part of a complex system of governance based on diversity, equality and participation.
This requires strategic efforts which bring together policy fields addressing: human rights and citizenship, integration of minorities, immigration, social affairs, employment, health, security, social and labour affairs, sectors such as culture, education, sport, and youth. This would also imply the introduction of mechanisms to facilitate cooperation between different levels of government – European, national, regional/local. Designated cross-sector partnerships with civil society actors are equally important as they have been driving forces to promote ICD long before it became a political priority. At the moment, NGOs play a key role where formal ICD structures, policies or programmes are less developed. They require additional support in the form of grants for activities and/or basic infrastructure, particularly in South and Central/Eastern Europe.
 
D. Develop strategies which recognise intercultural dialogue as a process of interactive communication within and between cultures which aims to develop a deeper understanding of diverse perspectives and practices; to increase participation and the freedom and ability to make choices; to foster equality; and to enhance creative processes. In particular, such strategies could be built upon the identification of specific ICD barriers within countries such as incidents of discrimination against "visible minorities" or specific groups (e.g. the Roma or Muslims) and could be combined with existing programmes to promote trans-border cooperation and dialogue within and beyond Europe.
 
E. Intercultural dialogue depends upon the opening up of institutional structures. This applies to all institutions regardless of whether they are operating in specific sectors. In the European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research (ERICarts): Sharing Diversity XV field of education this would mean increased efforts to diversity teaching staff, to re-examine educational resources such as textbooks, to foster multi-perspective and multi-language learning, avoid segregated schools which separate children on the basis of their social or cultural origin. ICD approaches in arts and heritage institutions could mean diversifying governing boards and staff as well as the content of programmes by involving artists with different cultural backgrounds and artistic visions. Institutions can create shared spaces which encourage dialogue and cross-cultural mixing and engage the public in programme development, encouraging people to become creators rather than only consumers of identity.
 
F. Encourage the active participation of the media/culture industries in ICD. A three-fold strategy could be developed which addresses diversity in: staff policies and governing boards; audits and codes of conduct; and content production and coverage of intercultural and inter-faith issues reflecting European guidelines. The public is an important resource to involve in the creation of such programmes. Industry representatives and public policy makers are encouraged to work together to find creative ways to implement the UNESCO Convention on the diversity of cultural expressions.
 
G. Integrate the development of intercultural competencies and skills as part of an overall political vision or national strategy on life-long learning. Such a strategy would involve the production of special resources such as manuals, toolkits, glossaries to assist teachers at the kindergarten, primary and secondary school levels, the introduction of intercultural modules at the university level for different professional fields, such as journalism or heritage management, and programmes to 'train trainers' in intercultural literacy and mediation.
 
H. Strengthen ICD in EU Neighbourhood policies and conduct an evidence-based evaluation of successes / failures in present and past schemes; the latter is to be developed together with specialists from neighbouring countries. There is also a need to further clarify the potential role of ICD in other development strategies and policies.
 
I. Further expand EU cooperation with other European and international bodies. For example through initiatives to monitor ICD and cultural diversity policies in a new framework agreement of cooperation with the Council of Europe in the culture sector or through creating links between EU and UN Years or designated days which focus on issues relevant to cultural diversity, tackling racism and improving intercultural understanding.
 
J. Establish a clear concept/definition of intercultural dialogue. This is especially important for the future development of European, national, regional/local policies, strategies and funding programmes to promote intercultural dialogue. It will help avoid potential misinterpretations of their objectives and make it easier to evaluate their success.
 
K. Implement and harmonise evaluation methods for ICD programmes and activities, including quality criteria and indicators to assess their impact, taking account of the dynamics at the heart of such processes. Innovation, institutional and attitudinal change as well as sustainability are to be introduced as criteria in the evaluation of intercultural projects.
 
L. Improve research methodologies for intercultural comparisons. Further improvements in the comparability of ICD related research and statistics are required. This could be achieved through a support programme for in-depth trans-national investigations (e.g. on the impact of different ICD policies/programmes) and through the creation of a new EUROSTAT working group open to independent researchers and specialists from minority communities.

 
Disse anbefalinger er et uddrag fra European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research (ERICarts): Sharing Diversity.
ICD er en forkortelse for Inter-Cultural Dialogue.

Tekstafsnit med rød farve er CKI’s markeringer, eftersom de specifikt retter sig mod kunst- og kulturlivet.
 
 

 

  

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